[BK16] Zoos Are Too Important to Fail. But They Can Be Much Better Than They Are — Bulliard, K. in Washington Post (2016)
[ZA10] The Role of Zoos in Contributing to In Situ Conservation — Zimmermann, A, (2010) — An excellent outline of the challenges and opportunities that zoos face in the implementation of their conservation programs.
[KR15] A Universal Animal Welfare Framework for Zoos — Kagan, R. & al. in Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science (2015) — Provides a framework for helping improving welfare of captive animals, with the core principle of ensuring that animals in zoos thrive, not just survive, physically, psychologically and socially. It is important to note that it raises implicitly the issue that zoos are not patient-centered yet although they should be, despite what zoo enthusiasts want to believe. The 1st author is Ron Kagan, the very reputable head of the Detroit Zoological Society. Take a moment to also listen to his very good 2015 TED talk on the topic (Animal Welfare and the Future of Zoos ). It’s well worth 20 minutes of our time.
[5F] The Five Freedoms — Wikipedia
[RTA] The Five Freedoms — Right Tourism Association
[MC13] A Critique of FAWC’s Five Freedoms as a Framework for the Analysis of Animal Welfare — McCullogh, S. (2013)
[DM13] A User’s Guide to Animal Welfare Science — Dawkins, M.S. (2006)
[KM10] Ethics of Keeping Mammals in Zoos and Aquariums — Kreger M.D. & Hutchins M. (2010). in Wild Mammals in Captivity: Principles and Techniques for Zoo Management, 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 3–10.
[WN16] Animal Behaviour and Welfare Course (University of Edinburgh) — An excellent course that we encourage our EwA followers who have close interactions with animal in captivity to attend to. The course is taught by the prominent following experts: Professor Nat Waran | Jeanne Marchig International Centre for Animal Welfare Education, The Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies; Dr Fritha Langford | Scotland’s Rural College (SRUC); Heather J Bacon | BSc BVSc CertZooMed MRCVS, Veterinary welfare education and outreach, Jeanne Marchig International Centre of Animal Welfare Education; Hayley Walters | RVN Welfare and Anaesthesia; Jill MacKay | Animal Behaviour and Welfare Researcher, Animal Behaviour and Welfare Team, SRUC
[WF16] Are We Smart Enough to Know How Smart Animals Are? — de Waal, F. (2016)
[MK07] Sources of Stress in Captivity — Morgan, K. & Tromborg, C. in Applied Animal Behavior Science 102 262-302 (2007).
[DJ07] Visitors’ Effects on the Welfare of Animals in the Zoo: A Review — Davey, G. in Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 10:2, 169-183, (2007)
[MB13] Ecological Ethics in Captivity: Balancing Values and Responsibilities in Zoo and Aquarium Research under Rapid Global Change — Minteer, B.A. & Collins, J.P. (2013)
[SS13] The Effect of Visitors on Zoo Animals — Sherwen, S. Univ of Melbourne (2013)
[QS14] Zoo Visitor Effect on Mammal Behaviour: Does Noise Matter? — Quadros, S. & al. (2014)
[ML10] Do Zoos and Aquariums Promote Attitude Change in Visitors? A Critical Evaluation of the American Zoo and Aquarium Study — Marino, L. & al. (2010)
[MA13] The Educational Claims of Zoos: Where Do We Go from Here — Moss, A. & Esson, M. in Zoo Biology (2013)
[JE14] Evaluating Children’s Conservation Biology Learning at the Zoo — Jensen, E. (2014)
[RN16] Putting Animal Empathy on Display — Rose, N.A. Center for Humans and Nature (2016)
[BFF(1)] The Zoochotic Report — Born Free Foundation. Video observations by the late Bill Travers, taken over 3 years in over 100 zoos in Europe, North America and the Far East, the Zoochotic Report raised serious concerns about the effects of captivity on wild animals. The Report helped form the philosophies for the Foundation and its animal welfare objectives.
[BFF(2)] Zoochosis: Abnormal and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Animals — Born Free Foundation
[DP15] Ark or Park: the Need to Predict Relative Effectiveness of Ex Situ and In Situ Conservation Before Attempting Captive Breeding — Dolman, P. M. & al. in Journal of Applied Ecology (2015)
[SN96] Limitations of Captive Breeding in Endangered Species Recovery — Snyder, N.F.R. & al (1996)
[OJ08] Most Captive-Born Predators Die If Released — Owen, J. (2008)
[JK08] The Effects of Captive Experience on Reintroduction Survival in Carnivores: A Review and Analysis — Jule, K. R. & al. (2008)
[FD08] How Well Can Captive Breeding Programs Conserve Biodiversity? A Review of Salmonids — Fraser, D.J. (2008)
[CR03] Captivity Effects on Wide-ranging Carnivores — Clubb, R. & Mason, G. (2003)
[SA96] Surplus Animals – A Study of Captive Wildlife in the United States — Performing Animal Welfare Society
[GK04(1)] Overview of the Laws Affecting Zoos — Grech, K. Michigan State University College of Law (2004)
[GK04(2)] Detailed Discussion of the Laws Affecting Zoos — Grech, K. Michigan State University College of Law (2004)
[WC13] Table of Reporting Animal Cruelty in the United States — Walden, C. Michigan State University College of Law (2013)
[EU15] EU Zoos Directive Good Practices Document — 2015 European Commission document.
We also encourage you to check the material of our Earthwise Aware Animal Welfare and Conservation Ethics YouTube Channel. Thanks!